Polycystic Ovary Syndrome – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is most commonly known as PCOS or stein-Leventhal syndrome. It is an endocrine system disorder that affects women in reproductive years; this condition is characterized by small fluid-filled sacs develop on the ovaries. These cysts are not dangerous but they could lead to an imbalance in hormonal levels.

Most women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) may also face menstrual cycle abnormalities which include increased androgen levels (a male sex hormone, such as testosterone), excessive growth of hair, acne, and obesity.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a major cause of infertility in women because it inhibits ovulation.

Women with PCOS who conceive, have higher chances of risk factors such as miscarriage, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced high blood pressure/hypertension, preeclampsia, and premature delivery.

Causes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

The exact reason for PCOS is unknown but there are some associated conditions such as insulin, low grade- inflammation, and genetics

Risk Factors for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS)

A genetic factor is a major cause. Due to genetic factors, some women are more likely to develop PCOS.

Excess insulin in a women’s body affects the ovulation by affecting androgen production.

Studies on women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) state that women may affect chronic inflammation/low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens.

Associated Health Risks of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

1. Type-2 Diabetes

2. Infertility

3. High cholesterol

4. Elevated Lipids

5. Sleep apnea

6. Liver disease

7. Abnormal uterine bleeding

8. Hypertension

9. Obesity leading to depression

10. Metabolic syndrome

11. Non-alcoholic fatty liver

12. Anxiety and Depression

13. Endometrial Cancer

14. Pregnancy-induced hypertension

15. Heart attacks

16. Miscarriage

17. Gestational diabetes

Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS)

Not only cysts on the ovaries, but other symptoms may also include:

1. Irregular periods

2. Excess androgen levels

3. Sleep apnea

4. High-stress levels

5. High blood pressure

6. Skin tags

7. Infertility

8. Acne oily skin and dandruff

9. High cholesterol and triglycerides

10. Acanthosis Nigricans(Dark coloration in body folds such as armpits, groin, and neck)

11. Fatigue

12. Male pattern balding

13. Insulin resistance

14. Type-2 diabetes

15. Pelvic pain

16. Depression and anxiety

17. Weight again

18. Excessive growth of hair on the face and on the body (Hirsutism)

19. Decreased libido

Diagnosis and Tests for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

A doctor can diagnose the condition by examining the medical history of a patient, physical exam by conducting the pelvic examination, and blood tests to check the levels of hormones, cholesterol, and glucose.

An ultrasound may be used to look at the uterus and ovaries.

Treatment by the Physician for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

No cure for PCOS. However, treatment can be given by a doctor which aims to control the symptoms that affect an individual:

a. Birth Control Pills: These pills help to regulate menstruation and hormones

b. Diabetes Medication: These drugs help to control diabetes, if necessary.

c. Fertility Mediation: If trying to conceive, then it includes the use of clomiphene, a combination of Clomiphene and Metformin, gonadotrophins such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) times letrozole may be recommended.

d. Managing Hair Growth: Laser hair removal, electrolysis, hormonal treatment, providing vitamin and mineral supplements.

reatment includes Surgery

At times surgeries may be done depends on the patient condition and severity of the condition, which includes:

a. Ovarian Drilling: Small holes made on the ovaries which can reduce the levels of androgens being produces.

b. Oophorectomy: This surgery includes the removing of 1 or both the ovaries.

c. Hysterectomy: This involves the surgical removal of uterus which may be the removal of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other surrounding structures.

d. Cysts Aspiration: Draining of fluid from the cyst.

Treatment from Home

No cure, but little changes in your lifestyle may help you relieve from symptoms:

1. Eating fruits and vegetables and maintaining a well-balanced diet

Written by MedPlus