Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is most commonly known as PCOS or stein-Leventhal syndrome. It is an endocrine system disorder that affects women in reproductive years; this condition is characterized by small fluid-filled sacs develop on the ovaries. These cysts are not dangerous but they could lead to an imbalance in hormonal levels.
Most women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) may also face menstrual cycle abnormalities which include increased androgen levels (a male sex hormone, such as testosterone), excessive growth of hair, acne, and obesity.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a major cause of infertility in women because it inhibits ovulation.
Women with PCOS who conceive, have higher chances of risk factors such as miscarriage, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced high blood pressure/hypertension, preeclampsia, and premature delivery.
Causes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
The exact reason for PCOS is unknown but there are some associated conditions such as insulin, low grade- inflammation, and genetics
Risk Factors for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS)
A genetic factor is a major cause. Due to genetic factors, some women are more likely to develop PCOS.
Excess insulin in a women’s body affects the ovulation by affecting androgen production.
Studies on women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) state that women may affect chronic inflammation/low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens.
Associated Health Risks of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
1. Type-2 Diabetes
3. High cholesterol
4. Elevated Lipids
5. Sleep apnea
6. Liver disease
7. Abnormal uterine bleeding
9. Obesity leading to depression
10. Metabolic syndrome
11. Non-alcoholic fatty liver
12. Anxiety and Depression
13. Endometrial Cancer
14. Pregnancy-induced hypertension
15. Heart attacks
17. Gestational diabetes
Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS)
Not only cysts on the ovaries, but other symptoms may also include:
1. Irregular periods
2. Excess androgen levels
3. Sleep apnea
4. High-stress levels
5. High blood pressure
6. Skin tags
8. Acne oily skin and dandruff
9. High cholesterol and triglycerides
10. Acanthosis Nigricans(Dark coloration in body folds such as armpits, groin, and neck)
12. Male pattern balding
13. Insulin resistance
14. Type-2 diabetes
15. Pelvic pain
16. Depression and anxiety
17. Weight again
18. Excessive growth of hair on the face and on the body (Hirsutism)
19. Decreased libido
Diagnosis and Tests for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
A doctor can diagnose the condition by examining the medical history of a patient, physical exam by conducting the pelvic examination, and blood tests to check the levels of hormones, cholesterol, and glucose.
An ultrasound may be used to look at the uterus and ovaries.
Treatment by the Physician for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
No cure for PCOS. However, treatment can be given by a doctor which aims to control the symptoms that affect an individual:
a. Birth Control Pills: These pills help to regulate menstruation and hormones
b. Diabetes Medication: These drugs help to control diabetes, if necessary.
c. Fertility Mediation: If trying to conceive, then it includes the use of clomiphene, a combination of Clomiphene and Metformin, gonadotrophins such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) medicines.at times letrozole may be recommended.
d. Managing Hair Growth: Laser hair removal, electrolysis, hormonal treatment, providing vitamin and mineral supplements.
reatment includes Surgery
At times surgeries may be done depends on the patient condition and severity of the condition, which includes:
a. Ovarian Drilling: Small holes made on the ovaries which can reduce the levels of androgens being produces.
b. Oophorectomy: This surgery includes the removing of 1 or both the ovaries.
c. Hysterectomy: This involves the surgical removal of uterus which may be the removal of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other surrounding structures.
d. Cysts Aspiration: Draining of fluid from the cyst.
Treatment from Home
No cure, but little changes in your lifestyle may help you relieve from symptoms:
1. Eating fruits and vegetables and maintaining a well-balanced diet
Written by MedPlus